phase: Situations & Cases
The Situation in Sudan involves a conflict between the government of Sudan and several armed rebel groups who are fighting for access to and control over resources and land, as well as increased rights for their perceived disadvantaged tribes or social groups. In the Darfur region, the conflict also has an ethnic dimension. From 2003-2005 in Darfur, pro-government Arab militias (including the Janjaweed, also known as the “Moujahadeen”) were accused of conducting an ethnic cleansing campaign against non-Arabs. In combating rebel forces in Darfur, these pro-government militias allegedly attacked civilian populations, looted civilian property, and caused forced displacement.
Attacks on aid workers and peacekeepers have also occurred throughout the conflict. Several different parties have been accused of committing human rights violations and attacks on the civilian population, causing the displacement of tens of thousands of refugees.
Sudan is not a State Party to the Rome Statute. The United Nations (UN) Secretary General Kofi Annan established the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur in October 2004, and published a report on April 7, 2005 finding reason to believe that war crimes and crimes against humanity had been committed in Darfur under article 8 and 7 respectively of the Rome Statute. On March 31, 2005, the UN Security Council referred the situation in Darfur/Sudan to the ICC for investigation through Resolution 1593. Following a preliminary examination, the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC officially opened an investigation in Darfur on June 6, 2005. Within the Situation in Sudan, there are the following cases: The Prosecutor v. Bahr Idriss Abu Garda, The Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, The Prosecutor v. Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain, The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Muhammad Harun “Ahmad Harun” and Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman “Ali Kushayb” and The Prosecutor v. Abdel Raheem Muhammad Hussein.
For more information on the Situation in Sudan, please visit the ICC page.